Washing Client Certs in ColdFusion with SOAP – Part 3

Continuing from part 2, I’ve got my SOAP request working, but the solution is limited to the OS platform and I don’t like the security implications. What I would really like is a solution that works without the need of a custom tag that is OS dependent. If only CFHTTP wasn’t broken.

I decided to look at what I already had available; namely Java. ColdFusion runs on top of Java and it’s possible to create Java objects from within ColdFusion.

I’ll spare you the grueling details, but I did get caught up at one point playing around with the Java keystore and importing my client certificate into that keystore. Using things like keytool and OpenSSL I tore apart and reconstructed my client certificate and my Java keystore. Ultimately I didn’t need to do any of that and should have just left the keystore alone.

The path to enlightenment began when I found an example of Java socket operations using  the javax.net.ssl.SSLContext object. The example code I was looking at used this object to create regular sockets, not SSL-enabled sockets. I looked into this object and found a few more examples using it to create SSL connections. A bit of back and forth between these examples and the online Java API spec resulted in the discovery that I could load a PKCS12 file as a keystore and pass that to the SSLContext object then create sockets from that SSLContext. This looked promising.

After a bit of trial and error I finally had something that worked!

Here’s the relevant portion of code. I’ll go line-by-line afterwards.

<cfscript>
  // 01: create input file stream from certificate
  variables.ksf = CreateObject( "java", "java.io.FileInputStream" ).init( variables.cert_file );

  // 02: create keystore object from certificate
  variables.ks = CreateObject( "java", "java.security.KeyStore" ).getInstance( "PKCS12" );
  variables.ks.load( variables.ksf, JavaCast( "String", variables.cert_password ).toCharArray() );

  // 03: create key manager factory out of keystore
  variables.kmf = CreateObject( "java", "javax.net.ssl.KeyManagerFactory" ).getInstance( "SunX509" );
  variables.kmf.init( variables.ks, JavaCast( "String", variables.cert_password ).toCharArray() );

  // 04: create SSL context object using key manager factory
  variables.sslc = CreateObject( "java", "javax.net.ssl.SSLContext" ).getInstance( "TLS" );
  variables.sslc.init( kmf.getKeyManagers(), JavaCast( "null", "" ), JavaCast( "null", "" ) );

  // 05: get SSL socket from SSL context
  variables.factory = sslc.getSocketFactory();

  // 06: connect to the server via SSL
  variables.sock = variables.factory.createSocket( variables.server_address, variables.server_port);
  variables.sock.startHandshake();

  // 07: create input and output streams to read from and write to the socket
  variables.sout = variables.sock.getOutputStream();
  variables.out = createObject( "java", "java.io.PrintWriter" ).init( variables.sout );
  variables.sinput = variables.sock.getInputStream();
  variables.inputStreamReader = createObject( "java", "java.io.InputStreamReader" ).init( variables.sinput );
  variables.input = createObject( "java", "java.io.BufferedReader" ).init( variables.InputStreamReader );

  // 08: send the HTTP request over the socket
  variables.out.println( Trim( variables.request_header ) );
  variables.out.println();
  variables.out.println( Trim( variables.soap_envelope ) );
  variables.out.println();
  variables.out.flush();

  // 09: read the response from the server
  variables.result = "";
  do {
    variables.line = input.readLine();
    variables.lineCheck = IsDefined( "variables.line" );
    if ( variables.lineCheck ) {
      variables.result = variables.result & variables.line & Chr(13) & Chr(10);
    }
  } while ( variables.lineCheck );

  // 10: close the connection
  variables.sock.close();
</cfscript>

So let’s work through this.

01: The variable variables.cert_file contains the full path to the client certificate. This line opens that file for reading.

02: This creats a java.security.KeyStore object that expects a PKCS12 format and then loads the client certificate into the keystore. Note that the second parameter of the KeyStore.load() method is the password of the PKCS12 file. You must pass this as a character array and not as a string, which is why the password must be cast as a String object whose toCharArray() method is called to obtain that character array.

03: This creates a javax.net.ssl.KeyMangerFactory object which is used by the SSLContext object to deal with the certificates in the keystore. Note that the second parameter of the init() is the password to the certificate in character array format. You must provide the password twice, once when creating the keystore, and then again creating the key manager factory.

04: Here we create the javax.net.ssl.SSLContext object. The getInstance() call tells what protocol to use with this object, in this case “TLS“. (Note: “SSLv3” also works. No idea which one I should be using. If one fails, try the other.) Once the object is instantiated we initialize it with a key manager from the key manager factory. The second and third parameters of the init() method could point to a trust manager and a source of randomness. It doesn’t appear that either is needed (this is what I saw in other examples) so I pass null values. Note that you have to use JavaCast() to pass a null.

05: Get a socket factory object from the SSLContext object. This factory will be used to create individual sockets using the parameters established with the SSLContext object.

06: Create a single socket from the socket factory by passing the server address (variables.server_address) and port (variables.server_port) we want to connect to. Then call startHandshake() which will create the connection to the server using SSL.

07: Create objects needed to read from and write to the socket we’ve created.

08: Here we send our SOAP envelope to the server. Note that since we’re doing everything by hand we also have to send the proper HTTP headers. Both the variables.request_header and variables. soap_envelope variables were created using the CFSAVEDCONTENT tag as shown in part 1. You want to create the envelope first so you know the correct content-length value for the HTTP header. Since I decided to stick with SOAP 1.1 the header also contains the SOAPAction field and the content-type is set to text/xml.

Here is an example of how I created the headers:

<cfsavecontent variable="variables.request_header">
POST <cfoutput>#variables.server_request_path#</cfoutput> HTTP/1.0
Host: <cfoutput>#variables.server_address#</cfoutput>
User-Agent: SOAP Washer/1.0
SOAPAction: "<cfoutput>#variables.soap_action#</cfoutput>"
Content-Type: text/xml
Content-Length: <cfoutput>#Len( Trim( variables.soap_envelope ))#</cfoutput>
</cfsavecontent>

Standard HTTP/1.0 headers. You can make the User-Agent field just about whatever you want.

Also worth mentioning is that I didn’t try to combine the two (HTTP headers and envelope) into a single variable. This is because how CFSAVEDCONTENT handles newline characters is different between ColdFusion 8 and ColdFusion 9. By keeping them separate this code is able to operate under either version.

The empty println() commands are there to send a newline. And the flush() call simply sends anything left in the buffers, thus completing the sending of our request.

09: This is where we read the response from the server. The response can only be read one line at a time, so we need a loop to keep reading one line at a time and appending it to the variable where we’ll store the entire response (variables.result).

A tricky thing working between ColdFusion and Java objects is that if you assign the return value of a Java object method to a ColdFusion variable and that return value is null then the ColdFusion variable is unset or deleted. Since the readLine() method returns null when there’s nothing more to read, the only way to know we’ve completed reading the response is to test if variables.line, where we store the return value of readLine(), still exists. If it doesn’t, we’ve reached the end of the response.

10: Close the connection

The ColdFusion variable variables.result will contain the entire response from the server, including the response HTTP headers. Meaning if you want to get a proper XML object from xmlParse() you’re going to need to first strip away those headers.

<cfset variables.temp = REFindNoCase( "content-length: ([0-9]+)", variables.result, 1, "True" )>
 <cfif variables.temp.len[1] GT 0>
  <cfset variables.length = Val( Mid( variables.result, variables.temp.pos[2], variables.temp.len[2] ))>
  <cfset variables.xmlResult = Trim( Right( RTrim( variables.result ), variables.length ))>
</cfif>

This should do the trick. Although you may want to throw in some code to strip out the status code to ensure a good transaction.

And there you have it. Handling transactions with a third-party web site using client certificates under ColdFusion using only native ColdFusion objects.

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2 thoughts on “Washing Client Certs in ColdFusion with SOAP – Part 3

  1. Pingback: A bit of vinegar to go with the SOAP. « The Forgettable Mister Ruthsarian

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