A Look Into The Crystal Ball

“The Cloud” is a buzzword meaning third-party hosted internet applications.

To the individual this means being able to manage your content from any location that provides some form of internet access. Things like gmail, Google Docs, Flickr, WordPress.com and YouTube are examples.

To the corporation it’s a form of outsourcing. Gone are the days of large data centers to manage corporate information. Now the information is stored in the cloud. Now it’s someone else’s nightmare to manage.

It’s also a security nightmare for those who dare to take a moment to consider the security costs rather than the monetary costs associated with “the cloud”. You lose control of your information. You’re putting it into the hands of a third-party. You may have a contract with them that makes them responsible for any security breaches. In fact some managers prefer the cloud specifically because there’s a security contract that, in legal form at least, takes responsibility off their heads. But that doesn’t mean a security breach won’t happen. And when it does, when the genie is out of the bottle, what becomes more significant, that the information is out there or that you’re not going to get fired?

Sadly, I think most IT managers would answer the latter.

Privacy is one aspect of security, but it’s a concept that’s slowly starting to catch on. The public is slowly and painfully becoming aware that putting all their information out on third-party sites, that probably doesn’t have the individual’s best interests in mind, is a bad idea. The recent stir surrounding Facebook’s privacy issues is one example of this.

And as much as I would love to see this catch hold and become a driving force that tears apart “The Cloud” and everything “2.0”, it won’t. People will be quick to forgive or forget or to tolerate those privacy issues in return for easy access to information and entertainment.

“The Cloud” is probably not going to go away. In fact, it’s probably going to be the future. And it will be incredibly attractive.

I’m going to focus mainly on “the Cloud” from the individual perspective.

Imagine an iTunes subscription. You could stream any music you want to any device you have, be it your phone while on the way to work or a tablet while you’re at home reading a book on it or a set-top box at your friend’s house who needs some background music for his or her party. Or from your hotel room while on a trip. You don’t have to carry any actual electronic device with you. Your music is in “The Cloud” and you can stream it from any electronic device.

Now apply the same idea to NetFlix or Hulu. Actually, NetFlix and Hulu (in many ways) already do exactly this.

E-mail? Photos? Documents? Gmail. Flickr. Google Docs.

All your information is in “The Cloud”. Ready for you to pull it up on any internet-enabled device, from your iPhone to a computer in an internet cafe halfway around the world.

This type of access already exists, but the interface is too clunky. I imagine a near future with some sort of set top device that you plug into a television that would provide all of this for you. It would become a common feature at most hotels and certainly everyone from grandma on down would have one in their house. No real computer needed anymore, just a thin client with a web browser and maybe a hardware video decoder.

And for the high-end user there would be the portable device. Something like an iPhone4 but with extra features like a micro projector to watch movies on the wall (who needs a TV?) and a small suction-cup device that turns any flat surface (window, table, etc) into a large speaker to provide clear sound.

There would be movie parties. Where everyone would sign into a private room on NetFlix and could watch the same movie and talk to each other, while each person sits in their own room separated by hundreds of miles.

Friendships would no longer need face-to-face meetings. Everyone becomes an avatar. A projected personality that may or may not relate to the individual’s physical presence.

Soon meetings would be conducted in a similar fashion. No longer do we need a boardroom, simply start up your telepresence app and everyone sees and hears each other without ever having to leave their cubicle.

Of course in such a world a room full of cubicles with dozens of separate conversations going on would create quite a bit of background noise and interference. Which is why cubicles would become something more like miniature offices with sound proofs walls and no windows.

You don’t really need to see outside. Just start up the local weather app to project an image of what it looks like outside; tailor-made to your preferred surroundings of a wooded area or urban setting.

Eventually such archaic devices like projectors, speakers, and microphones will be made obsolete with brain implants. Telepresence becomes more real. You don’t just see, you feel and smell and taste and touch. Physical contact with others can be achieved even though your thousands of miles apart.

The porn industry reaches its full potential. It’s not prostitution anymore, it’s all virtual. Every depraved and deviant fetish is now catered to, and it’s all virtual, it’s all fake. But it will feel very real. And what is real, but signals processed by your brain. It is real.

And one day some alien race might finally find our planet. Perhaps touch down and have a look around. They’ll walk the halls of large buildings filled with small, personal-refrigerator sized cubicles. Automated machines keep everything running smoothly. Perhaps interest gets the better of them. They peek inside one of the refrigerators and find a curious gray mass in a container of goo with some probes.

Say hello, then, to your grandchildren a million years from now.

University Website

This XKCD comic hit a little close to home. I work in higher education and the problem of what to put on our web site has been debated since it was first launched back in the early 90s.

The problem boils down to the question “Who is your target audience?

With a higher ed web site you’ve got several distinct target audiences; there is no singular target audience. You’ve got prospective students, current students, faculty, (administrative) staff, alumni, parents of students, media/press, and the rest which we lump into “visitors”.

Each of those groups have their own specific informational needs.

Prospective students want to know what they would be investing their time and money in when  choosing what university to attend. A web site targeting them will need to convey what their experiences with the institution will be like. This manifests on most higher ed web sites as things like a virtual tour and promotional materials about special events or accomplishments.

A current student doesn’t need any of that, they’re already on campus. They need more utilitarian things like course schedules, transportation information, faculty contact information, available resources like libraries, computer labs, the book store, dining, etc.

Alumni want to know what’s happening on campus, specifically things that make the institution (and thus their degrees) more prestigious. The university, in turn, wants to campaign to alumni for donations to help further grow the institution.

Faculty and staff tend to have more utilitarian needs like current students. Forms, procedures, policies, etc. as well as training and various HR-related operations.

Parents want to know their children are in a safe and healthy environment and that they’re getting their money’s worth.

Media/press want experts they can go to for quotes when stories happen. In turn the university wants to publicize all the really exciting and prestigious events happening on campus so the public (and the alumni, and the prospective students, and the parents) know what a great place it is.

The rest that we lump into “visitors” are usually coming from off-campus to attend some event being hosted on campus. They’ll want directions and parking information as well as contact information for those hosting the event.

There are areas of overlap, but (as the XKCD comic points out) there’s a lot of separation of the needs of each population.

So what do we do?

The first problem is the implication that the homepage of a web site is the whole of the web site. That the one web page must cater to exactly what the individual needs.

This is just not practical.

So what we do is break information down into logical components and then find a way to organize those components together in a way that caters to a given audience. The way my institution handles this is by creating “landing pages” for each audience. Each landing page is a glorified list of links to those components of the web site that the given audience might be interested in. We try to group links together to help make navigating a page of links a little easier. We also integrate a list of “most popular” links (based off web and search ogs, thus this list can change from time to time) in a prominent place on the page.

The homepage becomes something of a sign at a crossroads. We’ll put a few bits of news and campus events (those that would be of interest to a general audience) along side some links to landing pages. The user looks at the links, selects which audience they are part of, and continues down their road.

The problem is not everyone realizes they should self-select and will instead take off into the woods, not following any road at all and either get lost or get lucky. This is why we tend to stick a search button on every page to act as something of a North Star for those who lose their way. But there are still those who refuse to look up at the stars or follow the road, find a comfortable spot, and start to scream.

Can we do better?

I’ve often thought about creating a web site interface along the lines of 20-questions. A sequence of simple questions with a YES and a NO button. Answer each question and eventually you’ll get to the page you want. We remove everything that could possibly create confusion. No logos. No images. No text other than the question. Simple black background with white text and two buttons and that’s it.

I think such an interface would be very successful at getting users to the desired information, but I also think it would create a backlash from users who perceive such a thing as being extremely condescending.

So can we do better?

Some might suggest a portal.

The “guest” portal, which everyone would see before they log in, would contain all the marketing material you might give to prospective students and visitors. Then users would log in and the portal does the audience selection for them. Faculty get faculty-oriented content, alumni get alumni-oriented content, and so on. And with a portal you can target very specific audiences (all faculty members in the math department, all sophomores who are both in the SGA and greek philosophy, etc) without the user having to do anything. The server does all the heavy lifting.

Integrate the portal with admissions and student accounts. Allow prospective students of a particular major to communicate with current students of the same major to get their advice on the coursework. Allow alumni of a particular school or major to see what students of the same major are doing now. There’s an infinite number of possibilities, all of them positive.

So that’s it then, a portal.


Portals work if you have the time and manpower to manage it properly. You can be a little bit lazy with a static layout. It’s the difference between owning a pet goldfish and owning a pet monkey. Yes, you’re going to get far more out of your relationship with your pet monkey, but it’s going to be a much bigger headache as well, requiring far more resources than a goldfish.

I’ve rambled way too long. I could write 50 pages on this. You’ll have to live with being cut off and not having everything answered.

Two points:

1.) University web sites may seem to lack the specific information you want right on the homepage, but that’s because there are a lot of different needs that have to be met in such a small space. Put a little effort into using the site and it WILL work for you.

2.) There is no absolute solution for distributing content among so many different audiences through a  single web site. Figure out what you’re willing to invest into a solution and start educating yourself on the options and their pros and cons. Then pick the solution that best works for your situation.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Web

The United States Department of Justice has announced that it plans to create rules that apply the ADA to the web.

I’d like to begin by pointing you specifically to the section titled “Barriers to Web Accessibility“. It is a very good read with clear and specific examples of how web content can be inaccessible to users with disabilities.

I think this is a Very Good Thing. Not for any humanitarian reason, but for the very selfish reason that it will force developers to create better web sites. It will force developers to think “how will this affect users with disabilities” before they implement a web site design.

For example, there are quite a lot of stylesheets out there that make heavy use of !important rules. These rules override anything else that exists to style a given element, including user-defined stylesheets applied to web pages by users who have difficulty with low-contrast web pages (think gray text on a white background). !important rules are almost always a product of lazy developers who don’t take the time to learn the cascading order of CSS and resort to !important when they can’t figure out why their style won’t apply like it should.

However the are stickier areas that we’ll all have to deal with. For example the use of CAPTCHAs; those little scrambled words that you have to type into some box before you can submit a form. CAPTCHAs typically rely on images which are inaccessible to blind users. reCAPTCHA employs an aleternative, audio-based CAPTCHA along side it’s image CAPTCHA for such users. I’m a big fan of reCAPTCHA and suggest it to all web developers.

Another problem will be video content. Blind and deaf users won’t be able to access the full content of the video, however providing video captions or (more correct) a transcript of the video will solve the issue. It’s not a technological hurdle, just a tedious one. This web site specifically talks about YouTube and captioning as one way to solve this problem.

Mouse-driven events are yet one more problem area we’ll need to deal with. I myself make heavy use of drop-down menus with the CSS :hover pseudoclass. However, try tabbing through a web page yourself and you’ll see those drop-down menus don’t trigger. My approach to this issue has always been that the top-level items (those accessible to users who can only tab through the page) should link to pages from which the items in the drop-down are accessible. The drop-down provides a shortcut, but you are not limiting access to information for disabled users.

There are other areas to cover, but I’m not here to cover them all. In fact  I’m going to assume new areas will be created as technology progresses. The trick is to develop the mindset that as you develop a web site, or some web-based resource, to constantly ask yourself “is this accessible?”. If the answer is ever “no”, you need to find a way to make that answer “yes”. And, most importantly, follow through to make it a “yes” with vigor rather than apathy as I tend to believe developer apathy is the cause for the majority of inaccessible web sites out there right now.

Contuing My Case For Designing Without Javascript (or Flash).

Last week we learned of an exploit in IE6 that allows the attacker to take control of your computer simply by having you browse to a web page and get IE to execute a bit of Javascript. Microsoft urged people to upgraded to IE8 ASAP. Well it looks like IE8 is vulnerable as well. Here are the gritty details.

Microsoft won’t have a patch ready until next week at the earliest. So for at least a few days your computer is seriously vulnerable if you’re browsing the internet with IE.

But there are temporary solutions. One is to enable Data Execution Prevent (DEP) in Vista/Windows 7 for IE. You need to do this manually, but it might save you. Except it might not, as some French researches (see first article I link to) claim to have a workaround to make the exploit work while DEP is enabled.

The only other solution? Disable Javascript in IE.

And the threat is serious enough that people (read IT admins on behalf of those under their care) may resort to this very solution.

Which means any and ever web site that employs Javascript as a key means to access content and navigate the web site will become empty pits of nothing. The sites won’t work, the users won’t be able to access them, and business it lost on both sides of the equation.

However, had one designed their web site in such a way as to NOT rely on Javascript for presenting/serving content to the user, one would not be in the business of losing business every time a new Javascript exploit comes out.

So use Flash, you say.

Well, Adobe has scripting problems of its own. In fact Adobe is recommending people disable Javascript in Acrobat Reader, just like Microsoft.

Certainly seems like we’re staring at a future where Javascript can not, and should not be relied upon to deliver your web site content.

But if you take me for a cynic, that’s okay, I’ve got some cool news for you. A programmer is implementing Flash using Javascript and SVG. This could mean your future web pages could create their own animations without the need of any third-party plugin like Flash. This is kinda cool!

Search Interface

Several site operators, especially those I’ve talked to who also work in Higher Ed, have found that users (typically students) use their search function a majority of the time over drilling down into the web site to find the information they want. This is true of both first-time and veteran users.

This begs the question that if users are ignoring your navigation and opting for the search engine,  should web sites just have a search box on their front page (think Google). A single text input and a search button and that’s it.

Sub-page navigation would be similar; a text input bar along the top that, as you typed in your search string, would display suggestions. This is not unlike Google or the search box in Firefox 3.

It’s an interesting idea. You save a ton of page real-estate. You cater to the individual’s needs rather than trying to guess what they need or how they will perceive the structure of your web site. As long as the user perceives entering text and clicking on the links that appear as more efficient than trying to drill through your navigation scheme this sort of thing would work rather well.

There are, of course, a few drawbacks.

The first is that the traditional search engine would not be able to crawl your web site to index it. You could perhaps add some code that detects search engine bots and produces a site-map (maybe dynamically created).

Users with disabilities may have problems. I’m not certain a blind user would find it convenient. And users that have problems typing would find the interface very difficult.

You could perhaps address both issues by including in your web page a static navigation element that is hidden in such a way that screen readers and search engines will catch it, but regular users will not. Or you could allow users to make the menu appear by mousing-over or clicking a button.

Users who have Javascript disabled may not get the suggestion list, but they could still type in what they want and hit search like a traditional search engine. It just adds an extra step for them, but does not break the functionality of the web site.

The usefulness of such an interface on mobile devices is debatable. While the interface itself would be very small and fit nicely on a mobile device, the user will be forced to type the word or phrase they are searching on. This may be a bigger burden than simply scrolling and clicking on a navigation link or two, but on very deep sites this would probably be an easier interface.

I think the idea is deserving of at least a test implementation.

But perhaps I’m missing some key idea or concept that makes the whole idea break down. Please share any ideas or thoughts you might have.

Contuing To Prove My Now 5+ Year Old Argument

Flash (and JavaScript) should be used as tools to enhance an existing web site, not replace it. If your web site is not accessible to a user who has neither Flash or JavaScript support then you are doing something very wrong.

It appears that there is a new Flash vulnerability that can take over your computer. Awesome.

So how does one protect themselves from such a thing? Well, you could install noscript. It’s a plugin that will disable JavaScript, Flash and other embedded objects from web sites until you explicitly set permissions to enable them for that web site. Noscript won’t save you from web sites that you’ve already set permissions for — so it’s not a catch-all, but it will save you from links to web sites you’re unsure about. And it has the nice side-effect of disabling any JavaScript-powered advertisements.

What this means for you, the web developer, is that it’s time to start assuming the first time people access your web site they will have Flash, JavaScript, etc. disabled. This means you need to make sure your site is still accessible even under those conditions. Otherwise the user will have no reason to trust your web site if he or she can’t access it in the first place. If they don’t trust it they’ll never (well, they SHOULD never) enable script and emedded objects to run from your domain. Thus you will lose customers.

HTML, CSS and text. That should be the core of every web site. Flash and embedded objects to enhance the site, but not to provide the only means to access your content.

That is unless you’re one of a few embedded object kind of web site, like YouTube. But for the majority of us, that won’t be the case. And even so, you can always provide download links to the videos if the user doesn’t have Flash enabled to view them from within your web page.

<strong>TL;DR: Web sites should be accessible even without JavaScript and Flash.</strong>

The Last Mile

The last mile is a sort of euphemism that covers the complexity and expensive of the final step in getting a deliverable to a client. The origin of this comes from telecommunications companies (or possibly electric companies) where running large eletrical cables between major hubs across a country would be simpler and less expensive then getting the lines from each hub out to the individual customer, which might require thousands, even millions of individual cables to be run.

I was thinking on web development a bit the other day and I thought this might work as a metaphor for web development.

We spend the time developing a layout structure, an information architecture. We figure out what pieces of information belong where and when everything feels right we move into developing the means to convey this organized information to the viewer.

This means that allows the user to access and process the information is our “last mile”. This is our presentation, typically focused on visual design (but not always!). It’s the point where you decide what your logo should look like, what color scheme your website will use, and what technologies you’ll use to deliver the information.

The technologies for delivering the information include basic HTML, Flash, web services, RSS or similar type feeds, audio (podcasts), images, video clips, PowerPoint presentations, Word Documents, and printed pieces like books or posters.

It seems this “last mile” is what usually proves to be the most expensive and the most time consuming. This is why I think the metaphor fits well.

I think there are ways to help simplify and save in some parts of this process. Stick to the medium you know (web), focus on consistency of presentation (single template), don’t create lots of little different things that each need to be maintained ( podcasts, wiki, forums, video blogs, etc..) otherwise you’re going to create too much work for yourself and risk losing focus. Limit the number of people making decisions (less time spent in meetings, more time spent developing).

But at the same time, can a strict HTML and text site really engage users in a manner that’s going to keep them focused on your information? In a perfect world, yes. And I think in a lot of applications basic text/html works very well and is very maintainable.

However that will never always be the case. You will have times where you need something extra. Were you, say, a college campus, you’ll need things like a campus tour, photography of the campus, perhaps video or audio presentations to put a human face or voice to the information and give the prospective student a real sense of what the campus is about.

Take a family member or friend you’re quite fond of. What do you think would better convey the personality of that person: a page of text or a video clip of that person? It’s the video clip. Unless you’ve got good copy copywriters chances are you won’t be able to convey the feeling and personality with text alone.

At the same time, you don’t want to unnecessarily complicate your “last mile”. These extra pieces of technology to convey information aren’t always needed. Take for example a financial report for a given company. Do you really care about the personality of the company or how the information is presented more than the actual numbers? Chances are you’re only after the numbers, in which case a simple text/html page is the best means to convey your information.

So what about gray areas? Maybe a family run store where personality is part of the “brand” you want to convey. Well perhaps some photos of people in the story, a sense of what the store sells, and maybe even some sort of video intro from the owner. Do you need podcasts or a blog? Probably not.

With a little understanding of what the information that you want to convey is, who your audience is, and the tools at your disposal, you should be able to balance between conveying your information and keeping your site from becoming unnecessarily complicated.

The big caveat before I finish is to recognize accessibility issues. Your video won’t work for someone who is blind. Your audio won’t work for someone who is deaf. That doesn’t mean these options are no longer viable, it simply means you need to either provide alternatives for those populations or ignore them and risk alienating them.

A small audio or video clip that supplements an existing page of text probably doesn’t need to be transcribed for the blind since the content of the text should convey the same message. However a 30 minute video that details your business’ services, with no other available content that provides as much depth into those services, would absolutely require some sort of alternative be it a transcription of the video or a companion text piece.

Things to think about in the philosophy of developing for the web.